Reducing urinary incontinence can now be added to the extensive list of health benefits of weight loss, according to a clinical trial funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and the Office of Research on Women's Health (ORWH), both part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The paper reporting the results of the trial will be published in the January 29 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
The Program to Reduce Incontinence by Diet and Exercise (PRIDE), conducted in
The investigators report that women in the intensive weight-loss group lost an average 8 percent of their body weight (about 17 pounds) and reduced weekly urinary incontinence episodes by nearly one-half (47 percent). In contrast, women in the information-only group lost an average 1.6 percent of body weight (about 3 pounds) and had 28 percent fewer episodes.
"Clearly, weight loss can have a significant, positive impact on urinary incontinence, a finding that may help motivate weight loss, which has additional health benefits such as preventing type 2 diabetes," said NIDDK Director Griffin P. Rodgers, M.D.
Urinary incontinence affects more than 13 million women in the United States and accounts for an estimated $20 billion in annual health care costs, according to the paper. Obesity is an established and modifiable risk factor for urinary incontinence, but conclusive evidence for a beneficial effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence has been lacking. The PRIDE trial provides evidence supporting weight loss as a treatment for incontinence.
An important finding of the study is the difference between the two groups in the reduction of incontinence. Among women in the weight-loss group, 41 percent achieved a clinically relevant reduction of at least 70 percent of total incontinence episodes per week, whereas 22 percent of women in the information-only group achieved the same level of reduction.
At six months, women in the weight-loss group were significantly more satisfied with the change in their incontinence than were women in the information-only group. This was assessed through self-reported perceived change in frequency of incontinence, volume of urine loss, the degree to which incontinence was a problem, and satisfaction with the change in incontinence.
"Studies have documented that behavioral interventions help people lose weight, which helps decrease the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure, improve control of high blood pressure and cholesterol levels, and enhance mood and quality of life," said Leslee L. Subak, M.D., of the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) and lead author of the study. "Our results suggest that a decrease in urinary incontinence is another health benefit associated with weight loss and that weight reduction can be a first-line treatment in overweight and obese women."
Co-authors on the PRIDE paper were Deborah Grady, M.D., M.P.H., professor of medicine at UCSF and the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center; Rena Wing, Ph.D., of The Miriam Hospital and the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, R.I.; Delia Smith West, Ph.D., of the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, College of Public Health, Little Rock, Ark.; and Frank Franklin, M.D., Ph.D., of the University of Alabama at Birmingham.
Weight loss in PRIDE is comparable to that observed in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and in the ongoing Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD), two NIDDK-sponsored clinical trials in people with type 2 diabetes. The PRIDE intensive weight-loss program was modeled after these two trials.